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Statutes of the National Union of Students in Norway – English

Adopted by the General Assembly of the National Union of Students in Norway (NSO) in 2017. In force as of 27 March 2017.

Chapter 1 Objectives

§ 1.1 National Union of Students in Norway

The National Union of Students in Norway (NSO) is a special interest organisation for students attending higher education institutions in Norway, which operates nationwide.

§ 1.2 Objectives of the National Union of Students in Norway

The objectives of the National Union of Students in Norway are to protect and promote students’ rights and interests; to encourage student involvement in national and international educational issues; and, to represent its members. The National Union of Students in Norway is an independent organisation with no affiliation to any political party.

Chapter 2 Members

§ 2.1 Members

Student bodies at universities and university colleges in Norway may apply for membership in the National Union of Students in Norway, according to the Act relating to universities and university colleges (universitets- og høyskoleloven), section 4 subsection 1 sentence 1.

§ 2.2 Enrolment and resignation

The decision to apply for membership must be made by the uppermost elected student body at the individual higher education institution. In order to be assigned delegates to the annual General Assembly the following year, the application must be submitted to the Executive Committee before 1 October. Membership must be approved by the Central Board of the NSO by an absolute majority. If rejected by the Central Board, the applicant may appeal to the General Assembly of the NSO for a final decision. If the General Assembly also rejects the application, the applicant may submit a new application, at the start of the next Central Board election period at the earliest. Membership is valid from the start of the next school term following application approval.

The decision to resign membership is made by the member; it must also be ratified by the same student body in the next election period before the resignation is valid. Membership is valid until the end of the school term during which ratification takes place.

§ 2.3 Changes to membership as a consequence of amalgamations

In the case of mergers of higher education institutions, in which student bodies at one or several of the institutions involved are not members of the NSO, then the new student body must apply for membership. This applies regardless of how the amalgamation is carried out.

According to Chapter 13 section 5 of the Statutes, student bodies which were members prior to merging will retain their membership until the end of the current election period, registered with the same number of students which the student body represented at the original institution.

In the case of mergers in which all of the student bodies involved are members of the NSO, membership continues as one unified member at the new institution.

§ 2.4 Contribution to running costs

Members make a contribution to the NSO to help subsidise operating costs. The contribution fee is calculated according to the number of fee-paying students who were enrolled at the institution in the same term of the previous year.

The membership contribution agreement is signed by the student union, or student body if the member is not associated with a union. The Executive Committee of the NSO has responsibility for membership contribution agreements. In the case of resignation of membership, the member has responsibility for contacting their union or student body regarding termination of the agreement.

Changes to the contribution fee are decided by a qualified majority of the General Assembly. Changes take effect the following calendar year.

§ 2.5 Expulsion

Members who fail to pay contribution fees to the NSO for two consecutive school terms can be expelled. Expulsion is decided by a qualified majority of the General Assembly of the NSO. If a member who has been expelled for failure to pay contribution fees wishes to re-apply for membership, they must first pay the outstanding fees. A decision to depart from this rule can, however, be made by a 3/4 majority of the Central Board of the NSO.

Chapter 3 Documents

§ 3.1 Steering documents approved by the General Assembly

The documents which require approval by the General Assembly are central documents which have been approved by all of the other bodies within the organisation. The Central Board proposes all agenda items for the General Assembly meeting, with the exception of those prepared by specific committees or groups.

The General Assembly has the responsibility for approving the following documents:

  • Statutes
  • Main Platform
  • Action plan
  • Main budget
  • Policy platforms

3.1.1 Statutes

The Statutes take precedence over other steering documents.

The treatment of the Statutes is regulated in Chapter 16 section 3.

3.1.2 Main Platform

The Main Platform states the organisation’s fundamental principles and its overriding political priorities. It takes precedence over the NSO’s other policy platforms.

The Main Platform is taken up for routine discussion every third year. However, a qualified majority of the General Assembly can decide to discuss the Main Platform in any given year.

Suggestions for changes, additions or deletions must be in the hands of the Executive Committee at least five working days before the General Assembly is constituted. Approved alterations are valid from the end of the meeting.

3.1.3 Action plan

The Action plan regulates and prioritises the political and organisational work within the organisation. It must be in compliance with the Main Platform, other policy platforms approved by the General Assembly, and the Statutes.

The Action plan is taken up for discussion every year.

3.1.4 Main budget

The Main budget is described in Chapter 15 Finances.

3.1.5 Policy platforms

Policy platforms define and expand upon the organisation’s political stance on a limited area of policy. They must be in compliance with the Main Platform. Additional resolutions regarding policy passed by the Central Board, Executive Committee or other body within the organisation must be in compliance with existing policy platforms.

The policy platforms are taken up for discussion as necessary, within five years of the previous discussion at the General Assembly meeting.

The current policy platform is used as the basis for discussion.

3.2 Steering documents approved by the Central Board

The documents approved by the Central Board are purely subordinate documents which have been passed by the General Assembly.

The Central Board approves the following documents:

  • Financial Regulations for the organisation
  • Specified budgets
  • Mandates for committees in the NSO
  • Policy documents

3.2.1 Financial Regulations for the organisation

The Financial Regulations are described in Chapter 15 Finances.

3.2.2 Specified budgets

Specified budgets are described in Chapter 15 Finances.

3.2.3 Mandates

The mandates specify the work to be carried out by the Academic Council and the policy committees. The Council and the committees shall be heard before the mandate is finalised. Their responses are to be treated formally when the mandate is presented for approval. Mandates are approved before 1 July each year.

The Executive Committee is responsible for convening meetings of the Academic Council.

3.2.4 Policy documents

Policy documents expand upon and supplement the NSO’s Main Platform and other policy platforms.

§ 3.3 Other resolutions

The Executive Committee passes other resolutions in cases which are not specifically the responsibility of the General Assembly or the Central Board. Resolutions made by subordinate bodies must be in compliance with resolutions of higher bodies within the organisation.

Chapter 4 The General Assembly

§ 4.1 Authority

The General Assembly is the supreme body of the NSO. The negotiations of the General Assembly usually take place in open meetings. However, the General Assembly can choose to hold a private meeting, in accordance with Chapter 16 section 6.

§ 4.2 Calculation of student numbers represented by each member

The allocation of delegates is based upon the number of students represented by each member. This number is equal to the average number of students for which the member has paid contribution fees in the year prior to the nomination of the General Assembly.

The membership contribution agreement is regulated in Chapter 2 section 4.

§ 4.3 Allocation of delegates

The General Assembly consists of 181 delegates. Each member is represented by one delegate. Thereafter, the remaining delegates are allocated according to the Sainte-Laguë method, divided by 1, 3, 7 and so on, in relation to the calculation of student numbers described in Chapter 4 section 2. Members who have only one delegate according to this method have the right to send one substitute to the General Assembly.

§ 4.4 Delegates

The members elect their own delegates and substitutes. This is carried out by the topmost elected student body of the institution or by direct election among the students. One substitute is elected to each delegate. Delegates must be registered with documentation six weeks before the General Assembly meeting, in order to be granted voting rights. In the announcement of the General Assembly meeting made by the Executive Committee, the form of documentation required is specified. The General Assembly can only approve delegates or substitutes who have registered after the deadline, by a qualified majority.

Substitute deputies are not accepted.

The following people cannot be elected as delegates to the General Assembly:

  • Executive Committee members
  • Control Committee members
  • Election Committee members
  • Employees of the National Union of Students in Norway
  • Those with voting rights who have attended the Central Board’s nomination meeting/s for the General Assembly.

§ 4.5 Guidelines for delegates and observers

4.5.1 Compulsory attendance

Delegates are obliged to attend the General Assembly meeting, where they have full rights.

The following people are also obliged to attend this meeting, and have the right to speak and make suggestions:

  • Central Board members
  • Executive Committee members
  • Control Committee members
  • Election Committee members
  • Members of committees which directly nominate the General Assembly
  • Members of policy committees

4.5.2 The right to attend

The following people have the status of observers at the General Assembly meeting, and have the right to speak and make suggestions:

  • The Secretariat of the NSO
  • Substitute delegates, in accordance with Chapter 4 section 3
  • Candidates for the Executive Committee
  • One student representative from each of the academic strategic units of The Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions.
  • One representative from the International Students’ Union of Norway (ISU)
  • One representative from among the student members of the Board of the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT)
  • One representative from the Norwegian Students’ and Academics’ International Assistance Fund (SAIH)
  • One representative from among the student members of the Board of Norwegian Universities and Colleges Admission Service (NUCAS)
  • One representative from among the student members of the Board of the Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund (Lånekassen)
  • One representative from the European Students’ Union (ESU)
  • One representative from the Association of Norwegian Students Abroad (ANSA)
  • One representative from the Student Welfare Councils in Norway (ViN)

4.5.3

Other organisations and individuals who are invited to the General Assembly meeting will be granted guest status without the automatic right to speak and make suggestions.

§ 4.6 Loss of voting rights

Members who have not paid their contribution fees to the NSO automatically lose their voting rights. However, a qualified majority of the General Assembly can nevertheless choose to allow delegates from a member which has not paid its contribution fees to vote.

The General Assembly can decide to disenfranchise delegates who have been absent in excess of the limit stipulated in the rules of procedure, without valid permission.

§ 4.7 The standard General Assembly meeting

The General Assembly meeting is held each year before the end of April. The notice announcing the General Assembly, stating the time and date of the meeting, the deadline for forwarding proposals and changes to the statutes, the allocation of delegates and guidelines for preferential voting, must be sent out to members and the Central Board fourteen weeks before the meeting.

A notification together with a preliminary agenda is sent out eight weeks prior to the General Assembly meeting, at the latest.

The deadline for forwarding ordinary items for the agenda is six weeks prior to the General Assembly meeting. Items forwarded after this will only be included if a qualified majority of the General Assembly gives their assent.

The final agenda together with the case documents must be sent out four weeks prior to the meeting, at the latest.

The Executive Committee is responsible for announcing ordinary General Assembly meetings.

§ 4.8 The duties of the General Assembly

4.8.1 The General Assembly handles the following:

  • Documents as described in Chapter 3 section 1.
  • Authorisation of the accounts of the NSO.
  • Other items which are forwarded.

4.8.2 The General Assembly carries out the election of:

  • Honorary positions described in Chapter 13 section 7
  • Temporary honorary positions in the General Assembly
  • Auditor

§ 4.9 Extraordinary meetings of the General Assembly

If 2/3 of the Central Board members, 1/3 of the NSO’s members, a unanimous Control Committee or a unanimous Executive Committee forward a demand in writing, the Executive Committee must announce an extraordinary meeting of the General Assembly. If the Executive Committee fails to comply with this, the Control Committee must be called in. Notification of the meeting must be sent out three weeks prior to the meeting, at the latest. The agenda and case documents must be sent out ten days prior to the meeting, at the latest. The extraordinary meeting of the General Assembly can only handle items which are on the agenda.

Chapter 5 The Central Board

§ 5.1 Authority

The Central Board is the topmost body in the NSO between meetings of the General Assembly. It has the primary responsibility for the NSO, acting in accordance with resolutions passed by the General Assembly. The term of office of the Central Board coincides with that of the Executive Committee.

§ 5.2 Formation

The Central Board consists of thirteen members and thirteen substitute members. The election of the Central Board is regulated in Chapter 13 section 7 subsection 1.

§ 5.3 The duties of the Central Board

  • The Central Board handles documents as described in Chapter 3 section 2.
  • The Central Board must approve central budgeting and election priorities, and can adopt other political strategies.
  • The Central Board can make statements and pass resolutions.
  • Routines and guidelines.
  • Election of student representatives to the academic strategic units of The Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions.
  • Election of the Statute Committee.

§ 5.4 Meetings of the Central Board

The Central Board sets up its own meeting plan. The Executive Committee designates the time for the first meeting in the term of office of the Central Board, which must be held by 14 September. They must hold a minimum of six meetings. The Executive Committee is responsible for sending out notification of Central Board meetings.

A preliminary notice and agenda is sent out at least three weeks before the meeting. The finalised notice, agenda and case documents are sent out a week prior to the meeting and must also be made accessible to the members and committees. Members of the Central Board and student bodies which are members of the NSO can forward cases to Central Board meetings. The deadline for forwarding cases is sixteen days before the meeting. Cases which are forwarded after this time can only be treated if 2/3 of the members of the Central Board consent.

The Executive Committee proposes all cases to the Central Board, with the exception of those which are prepared by specialist committees or groups.

The Executive Committee, Control Committee and/or an absolute majority of the members of the Central Board can summons an extraordinary meeting. Notification of extraordinary Central Board meetings must be sent two weeks prior to the meeting. Case documents must be sent out at least one week before the meeting.

The Central Board chooses its own chairperson.

5.4.1 Attendance

The members of the Central Board have an obligation to attend meetings and have complete rights there.

The Executive Committee, Election Committee, Control Committee, as well as one person from the Main Platform Committee and each of the policy committees, have observer status and the right to speak and make suggestions.

Chapter 6 The Executive Committee

§ 6.1 Authority

The Executive Committee is the executive body of the NSO, and is responsible to the Central Board and the General Assembly.

The Executive Committee takes office on 1 July and the term of office lasts until 30 June the following year, with two overlapping weeks before 1 July. The Executive Committee must lead the NSO in accordance with the resolutions of the organisation.

The Executive Committee has the right to sign on behalf of the NSO.

§ 6.2 Formation

The Executive Committee consists of:

  • President
  • Vice president
  • One subject-specialisation and research policy spokesperson
  • One subject-specialisation and learning environment spokesperson
  • Welfare and equal opportunity spokesperson
  • International spokesperson

The election of the Executive Committee is regulated in Chapter 13 section 7 subsection 2.

§ 6.3 The duties of the Executive Committee

6.3.1 Employer responsibilities

Permanent authorised positions are created by the Central Board. The Executive Committee approves the job description for the Head of Secretariat. The Executive Committee employs the Head of Secretariat on a fixed-term contract. The contract is of four year’s duration with the possibility of a four-year extension. The decision to extend the contract is made by the Executive Committee. The President of the Executive Committee has the responsibility of employer with regard to the Head of Secretariat.

§ 6.4 Quorum

The Executive Committee is considered to have a quorum when at least four of its members are present, including the President or Vice president. The President of the Executive Committee has a double vote in cases where there is an equality of votes. In the absence of the President, the Vice president has a double vote where there is an equality of votes.

Chapter 7 Policy committees

§ 7.1 Policy committees of the NSO

The permanent policy committees are:

  • Subject specialisation and research policy committee (SRPC)
  • Welfare and equal opportunity committee (WEOC)
  • Subject-specialisation and learning environment committee (SLEC)
  • International committee (IC)

§ 7.2 Composition

Each of the policy committees consists of five people – the chairperson and four members. The committees must have three substitute members, in a sequence of priority. The substitute with the highest priority moves up to a permanent position if a member resigns from a committee before the election period is over.

The election of policy committees is regulated in Chapter 13 section 7 subsection 3.

§ 7.3 Authority

The policy committees are to be consulted in cases which are related to their area of responsibility. They may appoint a deputy chairperson. The policy committees report directly to the Central Board.

Chapter 8 academic council

§ 8.1 Composition

The student representatives appointed by the NSO to the academic strategic units of the Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions (UHR) constitutes the Academic Council.

The election of student representatives to the academic strategic units is regulated in Chapter 13 section 8 subsection 2.

§ 8.2 Authority

The Academic Council is an advisory body on specific academic matters. The Academic Council

can forward cases to the Central Board via the Executive Committee, and directly to the Executive Committee. The Academic Council is to be consulted in cases which are related to its area of responsibility, but does not have the right to propose agenda items directly to the General Assembly or the Central Board. The Academic Council reports annually to the Executive Committee.

Chapter 9 The Control Committee

§9.1 Authority and duties

The Control Committee of the NSO must make sure that the Executive Committee and the Central Board act in accordance with the resolutions of the General Assembly, the Statutes and guidelines of the NSO. The Control Committee must also check that the funds of the NSO are used in accordance with guidelines set by the General Assembly.

The Control Committee interprets the Statutes on the basis of relevant sources. The interpretations of the Control Committee can be overridden by the Central Board or by a simple majority of the General Assembly.

The Control Committee has responsibility for approving the Executive Committee’s financial routines. Notifications for meetings of the Executive Committee as well as the minutes must be forwarded to the Control Committee.

The Control Committee must ensure that the accounts of the NSO are audited in accordance with the Statutes. When the accounts are finalised, the auditor’s report is presented to the Control Committee.

All accounting reports from the Executive Committee shall be submitted to the Control Committee.

The Control Committee assists the Executive Committee, Central Board and General Assembly in organisational and financial inquiries on request. The Control Committee must make an explicit pronouncement in the case of taking up loans.

§9.2 Composition and term of office

The Control Committee consists of four people. The term of office for members of the Control Committee is two years. The Committee makes its own appointments.

The election of the Control Committee is regulated in Chapter 13 section 7 subsection 4.

Chapter 10 The Election Committee

§ 10.1 Authority

The Election Committee of the NSO nominates candidates to honorary positions, as specified in Chapter 10 section 3.

§ 10.2 Composition

The Election Committee consists of five people – the chairperson and four members. The election of the Election Committee is regulated in Chapter 13 section 7 subsection 5.

§ 10.3 Duties

10.3.1 Nominations for the General Assembly

The Election Committee nominates the following honorary positions at the General Assembly meeting:

  • President of the NSO
  • Complete proposal for the Executive Committee
  • Members of the Central Board
  • Chairperson of the Election Committee
  • Chairpersons of the policy committees
  • Chairperson of the Main Platform Committee (every third year)
  • Members of the Control Committee
  • 10.3.2 Nominations to the Central Board:
  • A complete proposal for the Statute Committee

10.3.3 Supplementary elections

In the case of supplementary elections, the Election Committee nominates honorary positions corresponding to Chapter 10 section 3 subsections 1 and 2, with the exception of supplementary elections of the Election Committee itself, which are carried out without nominations.

10.3.4 Finding candidates

The Election Committee actively seeks suitable candidates for the honorary positions they are required to make nominations for, and for student representatives to the academic strategic units of The Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions.

For other honorary positions which are elected at the General Assembly meeting and Central Board meetings, the Election Committee can assist in finding candidates when necessary, assuming they have the capacity to do so.

10.3.5 Evaluation of candidates

The Election Committee makes nominations according to Chapter 13 section 2, taking into consideration the geographic spread of the candidates.

§ 10.4 Presentation of nominations

The Election Committee presents its nominations at the election meeting.

§ 10.5 Confidentiality

All of the suggestions received by the Election Committee, as well as all information which the candidates themselves have not approved for further dissemination, shall be treated confidentially and destroyed after the completion of elections.

§ 10.6 Other provisions

Members of the Election Committee may not handle nominations to honorary positions which they are standing for.

Chapter 11 Other committees

§ 11.1 Main Platform Committee

The Main Platform Committee prepares proposals for the Main platform of the NSO to the following General Assembly meeting, and forwards these directly to the General Assembly without any other recommendations. All levels of the organisation have a right to comment.

The Main Platform Committee consists of five people – one chairperson and four members. The election of the Main Platform Committee is regulated in Chapter 13 section 7 subsection 6.

§ 11.2 The Statute Committee

The Statute Committee accepts all proposals for changes to the Statutes and presents proposals to the General Assembly. If necessary, the Statute Committee can put forward unanimous proposals.

The Statute Committee consists of three people. The election of the Statute Committee is regulated in Chapter 13 section 8 subsection 1.

§ 11.3 Ad hoc committees

The General Assembly, Central Board and Executive Committee can establish ad hoc committees and pass mandates, decide the duration of operation and the budgets for these committees.

Chapter 12 The Secretariat

§ 12.1 General conditions

The Secretariat of the NSO is employed by the Executive Committee, in accordance with employment routines determined by the Executive Committee. The Head of Secretariat has the responsibility of employer within the Secretariat.

The work of the Secretariat is led by the leader of Secretariat. That person is employed on a fixed-term contract.

The leader of Secretariat formulates job descriptions, which form part of the employment contract between the NSO and its employees. The Central Board must be informed when job descriptions are formulated for the Secretariat. The job description must be approved by the Executive Committee.

Employees cannot hold honorary positions in the NSO, have held an honorary position on the Executive Committee in the two years prior to permanent employment or one year prior to temporary employment, or have held an honorary position on the Central Board, Control Committee or Election Committee during the year prior to employment.

The Secretariat is subordinate, politically and administratively, to the Executive Committee, via the leader of Secretariat.

Chapter 13 Elections

§ 13.1 Eligibility

The following people are eligible for honorary positions within the organisation:

Delegates representing members and students who belong to member organisations, and people who hold honorary positions elected by the NSO.

Candidates to honorary positions in the NSO are eligible for the first semester following the conclusion of studies. Candidates for supplementary elections and re-election are eligible for only one year after concluding their studies or honorary positions in the NSO.

It is not possible to hold honorary positions as members of the Central Board, Executive Committee, Election Committee or policy committees simultaneously. Employees of the NSO are not eligible for honorary positions within the organisation.

§ 13.2 Gender equality among representatives

All of the formal bodies within the NSO must strive for gender equality among the representatives.

§ 13.3 Method of election

When voting for individual candidates, preferential voting is used. Where there are an equal number of candidates and positions, election by acclamation may be used. If one or more of the candidates request it, there must be a written ballot.

The guidelines for preferential voting are laid down by the Executive Committee and approved by the Control Committee. However, a unanimous Control Committee can demand that the guidelines for preferential voting be handled by the Central Board.

§ 13.4 Equality of votes

When there is an equality of votes in an election with more than two candidates for a position, the guidelines for preferential voting apply. When there is an equality of votes in an election with only two candidates for a position, then there must be a deciding ballot. If there is still equality of votes, the Election Committee’s nomination prevails. If there is no nomination, the election will be decided by drawing lots between the candidates.

§ 13.5 Election terms of office

Unless otherwise specified, all committees and boards have a term of office which begins on the 1 July of the current year and ends on 30 June in the following year.

§ 13.6 Supplementary election

The Central Board can supplement elections held by the General Assembly. The Executive Committee can supplement elections held by the Central Board.

13.6.1 Supplements to the Executive Committee

If a member resigns during a term of office, supplementation may be carried out according to Chapter 13 section 6.

If a president resigns, the vice president takes over until a new president is elected. The Central Board shall provide the Executive Committee with a leader.

§ 13.7 Regulation of elections held at the General Assembly meeting

13.7.1 The Central Board

The Central Board must contain at least one person from each of the following categories of institution:

  • University
  • State-owned University College or Institute of Technology
  • Privately-owned University College or Institute of Technology

The Central Board must have at least one person from each of these regions:

  • Northern Region (Nordland, Troms and Finnmark counties)
  • Central Region (Nord-Trøndelag, Sør-Trøndelag, Møre & Romsdal, Hedmark and Oppland counties)
  • Western Region (Sogn og Fjordane, Hordaland, Rogaland and Agder counties)
  • Oslofjord Region (Oslo, Akershus, Østfold, Buskerud, Vestfold and Telemark counties)

Substitutes are elected separately, in a block of their own, and prioritised.

Other conditions concerning the Central Board are regulated in Chapter 5.

13.7.2 The Executive Committee

The President and the Vice president of the NSO are elected separately. The other members are elected together.

Other conditions which apply to the Executive Committee are regulated in Chapter 6.

13.7.3 Policy committees

The chairpersons of each of the policy committees are elected separately. The other members of each of the committees are elected together. Three substitute members are chosen for each committee.

Other conditions applying to the policy committees are regulated in Chapter 7.

13.7.4 The Control Committee

Two members of the committee are elected each year and they serve a term of office of two year’s duration. Other conditions applying to the Control Committee are regulated in Chapter 9.

13.7.5 The Election Committee

The chairperson of the Election Committee is elected separately. The other members of the committee are elected together.

Other conditions applying to the Election Committee are regulated in Chapter 10.

13.7.6 Main Platform Committee

The chairperson of the Main Platform Committee is elected separately, while the other members are elected together. The election is held every third year – the year prior to the one in which the Main Platform is taken up for discussion by the General Assembly.

Other conditions applying to the Main Platform Committee are regulated in Chapter 11 section 1.

§ 13.8 Regulation of elections held at Central Board meetings

13.8.1 The Statute Committee

The members are elected together.

Other conditions applying to the Statute Committee are regulated in Chapter 11 section 2.

13.8.2 Academic strategic units

An election is held for every academic strategic unit in the Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions. Two prioritised substitute members are elected to each unit.

Other conditions applying to the student representatives in the academic strategic units are regulated in Chapter 8.

Chapter 14 Ballots

§ 14.1 Definitions

A simple majority is reached when there are more votes for a proposal than against it, and there are not more abstentions than votes.

An absolute majority is reached when more than 50% of those present with voting rights at a meeting vote for a proposal.

A qualified majority is reached when 2/3 of those present with voting rights at a meeting vote for a proposal.

A 3/4 qualified majority is reached when at least 3/4 of those present with voting rights at a meeting vote for a proposal.

§ 14.2 Ballots

Ballots are decided by a simple majority, unless other provisions have been made.

§ 14.3 Quorum

The General Assembly and the Central Board attain a quorum when at least 60% of the elected delegates are present.

Chapter 15 Finances

§ 15.1 Accounts

The financial year of the NSO follows the calendar year.

The Control Committee presents its findings on completed and audited accounts for the previous year to the General Assembly meeting for approval. The accounts are audited by an authorised accountant.

§ 15.2 Budget

The General Assembly approves the Main budget for the NSO for the coming calendar year. The Central Board proposes the Main budget to the General Assembly.

The Central Board approves the specified budget at their final meeting before the Main budget comes into effect. The specified budget defines how the funds of the organisation will be applied.

§ 15.3 Financial Regulation

The Financial Regulation and accompanying guidelines stipulate the financial standards and financial direction of the organisation.

§ 15.4 Taking up loans

The General Assembly and the Central Board can take up loans on behalf of the NSO, with a qualified majority.

Chapter 16 General provisions

§ 16.1 Amalgamation

A qualified majority of the General Assembly can decide to amalgamate the NSO with another student organisation with similar objectives.

§ 16.2 Dissolution

With a 3/4 qualified majority, the General Assembly can decide to dissolve the NSO. The proposal for dissolution must be forwarded to the Executive Committee of the NSO at least nine weeks prior to the General Assembly meeting.

§ 16.3 Changes to statutes

The Statutes will be handled by the General Assembly if proposals for changes have been forwarded.

Everyone with the right to make suggestions at the General Assembly, as per Chapter 4 section 5, as well as presidents from member organisations, have the right to forward proposals for changes to the Statutes. Proposals for changes must be received by the Executive Committee nine weeks prior to the start of the General Assembly meeting. All proposals for changes to the Statutes must be made known in the preliminary meeting notification.

Changes to the statutes are decided by a qualified majority.

Approved changes take effect from the end of the meeting, unless a 3/4 qualified majority of the General Assembly decides otherwise. Changes do not take effect until the treatment of the Statutes is concluded.

§ 16.4 No confidence

A proposal of no confidence with regard to representatives may be put forward by a body or a representative in the organisation, or one of the members.

The grounds for the proposal of no confidence must be stated in writing and submitted to the Executive Committee. Case documents in instances of no confidence are exempt from public disclosure.

All proposals of no confidence in representatives elected by the General Assembly or Central Board are handled by the Central Board and decided by a 3/4 qualified majority. The Executive Committee prepares the case documents and presents the case before the Central Board. If the proposal pertains to a member of the Executive Committee, the Control Committee must prepare the case documents and present the case before the Central Board. The case documents are sent out in accordance with the appropriate deadlines to members of the Central Board. As a rule, meetings held to assess cases of no confidence are private. However, if the case demands it, it may be heard at an open meeting. The demand for an open meeting can be reviewed by a 3/4 majority of the Central Board. The person being evaluated has a right to explain themselves to the Central Board before a decision is reached.

All proposals of no confidence in representatives elected by organs other than the General Assembly or the Central Board are treated by the organ responsible and decided by a 3/4 qualified majority. The Executive Committee prepares case documents and presents the case before the appropriate organ. The person being evaluated has a right to explain themselves to the appropriate organ before a decision is reached.

§ 16.5 Impartiality

A person is not permitted to participate in a hearing or decision on matters which have special consequences for their own part or for somebody so close to them that they can be seen to have a particular personal or economic interest in the outcome. Belonging to the same institution or sharing the same political viewpoint does not normally constitute a breach of impartiality.

§ 16.6 Private meetings

The General Assembly and the Central Board may, with a qualified majority, choose to hold meetings in private in individual cases. A private meeting consists of the respective delegates who may, if they have the support of a qualified majority, decide to invite others. Debates concerning the proposal to hold a meeting privately can only be attended by those with rights according to Chapter 4 section 5 subsections 1 and 2, and Chapter 5 section 4 subsection 1. If a private meeting is required to make a resolution, then the Control Committee must be present to ensure the presence of a quorum.